LeftoverLocals: Listening to LLM Responses Through Leaked GPU Local Memory


This paper describes LeftoverLocals: a vulnerability that allows data recovery from GPU memory created by another process on Apple, Qualcomm, and AMD GPUs. LeftoverLocals impacts the security posture of GPU applications, with particular significance to LLMs and ML models that run on impacted GPUs. By recovering local memory, an optimized GPU memory region, we built a PoC where an attacker can listen into another user’s interactive LLM session (e.g., llama.cpp) across process or container boundaries.