# Python built-ins¶

## Built-in functions¶

The Python interpreter has a number of functions built into it that are always available. They are listed here in alphabetical order.

Built-in Functions | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|

abs() | divmod() | input() | open() | staticmethod() |

all() | enumerate() | int() | ord() | str() |

any() | eval() | isinstance() | pow() | sum() |

basestring() | execfile() | issubclass() | print() | super() |

bin() | file() | iter() | property() | tuple() |

bool() | filter() | len() | range() | type() |

bytearray() | float() | list() | raw_input() | unichr() |

callable() | format() | locals() | reduce() | unicode() |

chr() | frozenset() | long() | reload() | vars() |

classmethod() | getattr() | map() | repr() | xrange() |

cmp() | globals() | max() | reversed() | zip() |

compile() | hasattr() | memoryview() | round() | import() |

complex() | hash() | min() | set() | |

delattr() | help() | next() | setattr() | |

dict() | hex() | object() | slice() | |

dir() | id() | oct() | sorted() |

For a more detailed description of their usages please see a link python-bult-in-fncts. See also a list of Python built-in keywords Python keywords.

Easily, you can check their help pages using, for example,
`help(abs)`

.

## Built-in constants¶

The two most frequently used built-in constants in Python include:

Operation | Result |
---|---|

False | The false value of the bool type |

True | The true value of the bool type |

For a more detailed description of built-in constants please see a link python-bult-in-constants.

## Built-in types¶

### Boolean operations¶

These are the Boolean operations, ordered by ascending priority:

Operation | Result |
---|---|

`x or y` |
if x is false, then y, else
x |

`x and y` |
if x is false, then x, else
y |

`not x` |
if x is false, then `True` ,
else `False` |

### Comparisons¶

This table summarizes the comparison operations:

Operation | Meaning |
---|---|

`<` |
strictly less than |

`<=` |
less than or equal |

`>` |
strictly greater than |

`>=` |
greater than or equal |

`==` |
equal |

`!=` |
not equal |

`is` |
object identity |

`is not` |
negated object identity |

### Numerics¶

All built-in numeric types support the following operations.

Operation | Result |
---|---|

`x + y` |
sum of x and y |

`x - y` |
difference of x and y |

`x * y` |
product of x and y |

`x / y` |
quotient of x and y |

`x // y` |
(floored) quotient of x and
y |

`x % y` |
remainder of `x / y` |

`-x` |
x negated |

`+x` |
x unchanged |

`abs(x)` |
absolute value or magnitude of
x |

`int(x)` |
x converted to integer |

`long(x)` |
x converted to long integer |

`float(x)` |
x converted to floating point |

`complex(re,im)` |
a complex number with real part
re, imaginary part im.
im defaults to zero. |

`c.conjugate()` |
conjugate of the complex number
c. (Identity on real numbers) |

`divmod(x, y)` |
the pair `(x // y, x % y)` |

`pow(x, y)` |
x to the power y |

`x ** y` |
x to the power y |

For a more detailed description of built-in types please see a link python-bult-in-types.

## An example study¶

The following example shows how to use Python’s built in functions.

- $lecture_note/chapters/chapt03/codes/examples/builtin.py